Can have minor compression and up to 2% missing insulation. Clean wool content, fineness, length of staple and strength are the main characteristics considered in arriving at the value of wool. This publication describes several grades and grading systems for wool. Learn vocabulary, terms, and more with flashcards, games, and other study tools. All three systems are measures of average fiber diameter and can be related to each other. Sheep is a valuable animal and it is found in the most of the region of the world. Wool fiber different qualities and grades of wool fiber. You may know specific breeds of these, such as angora rabbit, cashmere goat, mohair angora goat and merino sheep. Drew cable explains what he looks for when grading a piece of wool. A giveaway in ebay pictures is when the photos visibly show signs of pliability, sometimes odd bashes. There are six 6 of these grade standards representing the predominant range of color and leaf grades found in american pima cotton.
Occasionally, the skin of a slaughtered sheep was utilized for its wool. The normal procedure is to take two identical dye or pigment samples. If classing your own wool before sending off for sale, here are some things to consider. Wool production may be the key focus of the farming business, or it may be part of a mixed farming system, most typically a sheepwheat farming system. Bradford system aka english worsted yarn count system, spinning count or bradford count this system is defined as the number of hanks of yarn that can be spun from a pound of wool. Systems of grading of wool blood system numerical system. In the united states wool is graded using one of three methods the american or blood system. Steelwool grades and applications international steel wool. Sorting wool one of my great loves has been old books. Wool grades cooperative extension service m e x icos w. Wool classing is the production of uniform, predictable, lowrisk lines of wool, carried out by examining the characteristics of the wool in its raw state and classing grading it accordingly. The wool from a single sheep in the shorn grease state.
The usda numerical count system, commonly used in the united states, consists of 14 grades of wool. Felt quality is a matter of many years studying and especially feeling different felts. Therefore, a fleece grading 50s would yield 28,000 yards or 15. The blood system divides all wool, from finest to coarsest, into six market grades. One is placed in the dark as the control and the other is placed in the equivalent of sunlight for a 3 month period. W hen selecting carpet you are faced with many choices and the differences may not always be obvious. Some of the qualities a wool classer examines when classing wool are. Steelwool is produced in many different forms to better suit many types of applications. The process of sorting and grading is the hands on evaluation and separation of fleece into like micron ranges as well as creating uniform batches of fiber within those. Grades of wool described by the american blood grade system c. The numerical count system divides the wool into 14 grades, designated by a number. If a rambouillet grades 64s fine grade, then 1 pound of clean wool from that sheep will yield over 20 miles of.
Advantages of using natural wool fiber from sheep, goats. Usually all fleeces grown in the states east of the mississippi and missouri rivers. Three systems that describe wool grades in the united states are blood, numerical count and micron. The numerical value, known as usda wool grade, ranges from below 36s coarsest wool to finer than 80s finest wool. With this system the larger number will be a finer wool. All three systems are measures of average fiber diameter and can be related to each other table1. Wool grading by the american blood count system once upon a time a long time ago farmers shepherds were out standing in the field trying to compare one flock with another.
But because producers and consumers eventually wanted terminology that was more objective in how the wool was rated, the city of bradford, england led the way in grading wool more objectively. Economically important traits for sheep evaluation that will be discussed are live weight, dressing percent, fatness, muscling, yield grade and quality grade. While you can see the difference in some carpeting, in other cases you may find examples that look the same but differ substantially in price. This was primarily done in order to restore the name of south african wool from its bad reputation gained. For example, if a grade ewe is bred by a purebred merino, the lamb from that mating will produce a 1 2 blood fleece or wool.
Following are two examples of wool grading systems. Dressing percent dressing percent is important because it indicates the proportion of live weight that is contained in the. Wool is usually sheared from sheep all at once, resulting in a large fleece. Finenessthe fiber diameter, or grade,and its distributionis one of the most. Wool is the fiber from the fleece of the sheep or lamb or hair of the angora or cashmere goat and may include the socalled specialty fibers from the hair of the camel, alpaca, llama, and vicuna which has never been reclaimed from any woven or felted wool product. Three systems of wool grading are used in the united states. The classification system used to describe grease wools. Most of the body wool goes to one of three basic fineness grades with possible three length grades within each. For a good discussion of wool classing, see wool grading, a 1996 article by rodney kott of montana state university.
The numerical count system divides all wools in 14 grades, each designated by a number that classifies wool by fiber diameter. Can also have moderate to frequent gaps around wiring, electrical outlets, plumbing and other intrusions. They could all agree upon what a merino fleece looked like. Most of the grading process for wool that comes to midstates wool growers is done by hand.
In general, grade refers to the average diameter or thickness of the fibers. Our goal is to keep fiber grading as straight forward as possible on the farmers end. Sheep is popular for its valuable fiber which is called wool. Hence the blue wool scale has been widely adopted as a standard during uv exposure or uv weathering tests. The english or spinning count system of grading wool provides a numerical. Similarly, a grade of 50s would be finer than a 40s wool. When fleeces contain more than one grade of wool, the grader places the fleece in the grade pile represent. The finer the fibres, the more hanksa spool totalling 560 yards of yarncan be spun out of a single pound. When wool is graded fineness determined, the entire fleece is given a grade that.
Finenessthe fiber diameter, or grade, and its distributionis one of the most important of these quality. They grow a wool coat and once a year this wool coat is sheared off the animal. Live weight most lambs are marketed between 105 and pounds. The bradford system is a way to assess the quality of wool. The english or spinning count system of grading wool provides a numerical designation of fineness. Upholstery grades dont guarantee quality, but they are a clear indication of expense both the manufacturers in the creation of the material, and yours in acquiring it to upholster your furniture. The grade is determined by the thickness of the wire of which the wool is made of. Three systems of wool grading are commonly used in the united states.
All three systems are used interchangeably, but the latter is the system used internationally and preferred by wool buyers and manufacturers table 1. This is an older system where wool is graded depending upon the amount or percent of fine wool sheep breeding merinorambouillet blood there is in the animal being shorn. The count system is more extensive and involves the number of hanks of yarn that can be spun from one pound of wool. To name just a few, the wool for your sweater can come from sheep, goats, rabbit, llama or yak. This system separates wool into grades according to the average fiber diameter as measured by a micrometer. The micrometre is a common unit of measurement for wavelengths of infrared radiation as well as sizes of biological cells and bacteria, and for grading wool by the diameter of the fibres. The system separates wool into 16 grades according to the average fiber diameter as measured by a micrometer.
Isolated cotton wool spots one or more in the absence of any microaneurysm or haemorrhage should be counted as no dr r0. Each one differs in softness, durability and washing characteristics. In the yorkshire wool markets, before the advent of modern grading technology, quality was judged by how much yarn could be spun out of one pound of raw wool. Wool too variable to fit in the limits of a grade is placed down one grade. This originated in the 18th century in england and is based on the number of 560yard skeins that can be produced from one pound of clean wool top. End uses for wool by micron range the micron system, the most technical and accurate system of grading, was largely developed at the denver wool laboratory, usda.
Wool suit fabric super numbers explained gentlemans. Wool grading definition is the separation of whole fleeces according to quality, condition, soundness, and color into lots similar in character and value. American pima cotton grade standards are valid for a period of one year july 1 june 30. A couple of months ago, i purchased a copy of textile raw materials and their conversion into yarns by j. Once the butt end is completed, the skin is lifted off and redeposited to work on the front end. Grades of wool described by the american blood grade system are fine, 1 2 blood, 38 blood, 1 4 blood, low 1 4 blood, common, and braid figure 1.758 255 937 102 900 41 616 1590 95 146 792 945 545 986 931 978 850 968 1230 390 140 301 1236 146 978 1309 1092 1317 524 325 1086 718 9 387 959 641 451 149 963 667 191 1083 1476 724 1201 1439 1269 1026